Water Isn’t What You Think It Is: The Fourth Phase of Water by Gerald Pollack

Gerald Pollack, a famous bioengineering professor, and water researcher, wrote a ground-breaking book titled “Water Isn’t What You Think It Is: The Fourth Phase of Water.” Through this captivating work, Pollack challenges our preconceived notions about water by illuminating a remarkable and previously unrecognized phase of water that exists in addition to its more common liquid, solid, and gaseous phases.

The “fourth phase of water,” often referred to as “exclusion zone” or “EZ water,” is a notion that is introduced to readers in the book. This fourth phase, which differs from regular water, demonstrates special characteristics and behaviors that have broad ramifications for several scientific disciplines. According to Pollack, this water phase has the potential to fundamentally alter our knowledge of a wide range of environmental events and plays a crucial role in biological processes.

Pollack investigates the structural features and functions of EZ water using a combination of meticulous scientific analysis and clear explanations. He examines its capacity to produce an electrical charge and build structured layers, both of which he believes have the potential to affect cellular communication, energy generation, and other critical processes in living creatures.

“Water Isn’t What You Think It Is” questions long-held beliefs about water and asks readers to examine the tremendous implications of the fourth phase of water on disciplines like medicine, biology, and energy research by providing compelling facts and thought-provoking thoughts.

Overall, Pollack’s work expands the field of water science by providing an engrossing investigation of the fourth phase of water and its potential to fundamentally alter our perception of the natural world.

Does Water Transduce Energy?

The sun provides the energy needed to create structures in water. This ordered zone is created by the transformation of ordinary bulk water into ordered water by radiation. We discovered that all wavelengths, from UV to infrared to visible, can create this organized water. The most effective type of energy is near-infrared.

 Water readily absorbs infrared energy from its surroundings, which it utilizes to transform bulk water into liquid crystalline water (the fourth phase of water), often known as “exclusion zone” or “EZ” water because of how strongly it excludes solutes. Consequently, EZ water builds up organically and spontaneously as a result of environmental the charge of the fourth phase, which is often negative (Figure 1), is very significant. Water molecules are divided by absorbed radiant energy; the negative moiety becomes the foundation of the EZ, while the positive moiety joins water molecules to create free hydronium ions, which spread throughout the water. Greater charge separation is stimulated by a greater light.

This procedure is comparable to the start of photosynthesis. Sunlight energy breaks the water molecules during that process. Chromophores that are hydrophilic accelerate the splitting. Any hydrophilic surface may accelerate the splitting in this scenario, which is comparable but more general. Some surfaces perform better than others.

The divided charges have a battery-like appearance. Similar to how segregated charges in plants produce energy, that battery is capable of doing so. Since water makes up the majority of plants, it should come as no surprise that comparable energy conversion occurs in the water itself.

Water’s electrical energy reserves may power a variety of tasks, including flow. The axial flow through tubes is one illustration. We discovered that submerging hydrophilic material tubes in water results in flow through those tubes, resembling blood flow via blood veins (Figure 2). Radiant energy is absorbed and stored in the water, and this is where the driving energy originates from. Nothing further. For several hours or even days, the flow may continue unabated. More incident light results in a quicker flow.

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Applications in Atmospheric Science and Biological Flow

Atmospheric Science

The paradigm for water-based energy conversion has several implications for many water-based systems. These systems might include anything from engineering and atmospheric science to biology and chemistry. All that is required for the fourth phase to manifest is water, radiant energy, and a hydrophilic surface. The latter can range in size from a dissolved molecule to a slab of polymer. Inevitably, the liquid crystalline phase develops, and its existence affects how the system behaves in significant ways.

I’ll give a few illustrative instances.

You are one instance. Your cells contain around two-thirds water by volume. Because so many of those tiny molecules are needed to create the two-thirds volume fraction, that fraction translates to more than 99% in terms of the molecular fraction. According to contemporary cell biology, 99 percent of your molecules serve only as background transporters for the “important” components of life, such as proteins and nucleic acids. According to conventional belief, 99% of your molecules don’t do very much.

However, every macromolecule in the cell is encased with EZ water. These macromolecules are so closely packed together that your cells are primarily filled with the liquid crystalline water that surrounds them. Therefore, the majority of the water in your cells is liquid crystalline, or EZ water. According to the details in my earlier book Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life, water is essential to everything a cell performs.

The function of incident radiant radiation, which drives many of those biological processes, is novel. Your capillaries’ blood flow serves as an illustration. The red blood cells that must travel through capillaries, which are frequently smaller than they are, must bend and twist to fit through, which causes the blood to finally confront considerable resistance.

Resistance is strong. Although a significant driving pressure would be required, the pressure gradient across the capillary bed is insignificant. If radiant energy serves to push flow through capillaries in the same manner as it does through hydrophilic tubes, the dilemma is resolved. Radiant energy could act as an additional source of vascular drive to heart pressure.

Now it makes sense why taking a sauna makes you feel wonderful. If the capillary flow is governed by radiant energy and enough capillary flow is necessary for healthy functioning, then spending time in the sauna will unavoidably be relaxing.

Heat-related infrared energy ought to contribute to accelerating that flow. The feel-good sensation is thought to come only from the psychological realm, however, the information above suggests that exposure to sunshine may increase your body’s EZs. For optimal cellular function, fully constructed EZs surrounding each protein appear to be required.

The weather is a second illustration of the EZ’s crucial function. Two key factors—temperature and pressure—are the foundation of the common concept of weather. There is a claim that these two factors may account for almost all of the weather phenomena we observe.

The aerosol droplets, also known as aerosol particles, are microscopic water droplets that are present in the atmosphere. The atmospheric humidity is made up of such droplets. When the air is humid, the many droplets scatter a significant amount of light, creating a haze that impairs vision. You can see well across great distances when there are few airborne droplets.

The Fourth Phase book provides proof of the droplets’ structure. It demonstrates that each droplet is surrounded by EZ water and that its inside is occupied with hydronium ions. These internal hydronium ions repel one another, generating pressure that presses against the sturdy EZ water shell. That explains why droplets have a propensity towards being spherical.

How can those particles of aerosol condense into clouds? The EZ shells of the droplets are negatively charged. Droplets with negative charges should avoid forming clouds by repelling one another. Those aerosol particles with similar charges ought to stay widely scattered in the atmosphere. The question is how droplets may condense into clouds, which does happen frequently.

The dissimilar charges that exist between the droplets force them to condense. The late 20th-century Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman was aware of the theory and stated: “Like-likes-like because of an intermediate of unlikes.” Like-charged droplets gravitate toward one another because they “like” one another; the attractors are unlike charges positioned between the droplets.

Although generally acknowledged, the like-likes-like concept is sometimes disregarded since how is it possible for like charges to attract? The fact that it has been challenging to pinpoint the origin of the unusual charges is one reason why this elegantly straightforward idea has gone unnoticed.

We now understand that the splitting of water may produce, unlike charges, with the negative components creating EZ shells and the equivalent positive components producing, unlike attractors. The negatively charged aerosol droplets may form clouds if there are enough of them attractors.

These two phenomena, like-like-like cloud formation, and biological activity triggered by radiant light, show how water’s energy may explain things that are not otherwise understood. The fourth phase is a crucial component that enables the erection of an edifice of understanding.

Practical Applications

The fourth phase’s finding has applications that go beyond science. They comprise the aforementioned flow creation as well as electrical energy harvesting and even filtering. I only briefly touch on the latter two applications.

Because the liquid crystalline phase substantially rejects solutes and particles much as ice does, filtration happens spontaneously. Fourth-phase water is hence largely solute-free. It may be collected to produce water that is a bacterium and solute free. This anticipation has been validated by a functioning prototype. This technique of purification does not require a physical filter since the fourth step separates the substances on its own and uses energy from the sun.

Energy harvesting appears to be simple: light causes charge separation, and the separated charges make up a battery. With the right electrodes, electrical energy harvesting should be possible. This technology is now being developed at our spinoff firm and has the potential to displace conventional solar systems with more straightforward water-based alternatives. On the site of the Pollack laboratory, you may find more information about these real-world applications.

Our bodies have practical uses as well, and I’ll give you two examples here: why your joints don’t creak and why dislocated or sprained joints will swell in a matter of seconds.

Bones push on one another at joints. In exercises like push-ups and deep knee bends, the bones may also spin. Rotation under pressure may be expected to cause noisy frictional resistance, yet joint friction is surprisingly low. Why so?

The cartilage that lines the ends of bones. The pressing is done by those cartilaginous components. As a result, the problem of joint friction becomes one of the cartilaginous surfaces and the synovial fluid that fills the space between. How does this mechanism function under strain?

Because it contains highly charged polymers and water, cartilage is a classic example of a gel. Gel surfaces exhibit EZs, thus cartilage surfaces ought to exhibit EZs as well. Numerous hydronium ions are produced by the splitting of water caused by EZ accumulation in the synovial fluid between. The molecules in that fluid release more hydronium ions, which produce their EZs and protons. As a result, there will be a lot of hydronium ions in the space between two cartilaginous surfaces.

Some researchers contend that even under tremendous loads, the cartilage surfaces never contact, which suggests that the repulsive force produced by those hydronium ions should keep the cartilage surfaces apart. Because of this separation, there won’t be any asperities or rough areas when the surfaces shear past one another, which results in reduced friction.

Such a mechanism must have some sort of internal restriction to hold the repelling hydronium ions in place for it to function. Otherwise, they risk being ejected from the area and jeopardizing lubrication. Nature supplies that safety net, encasing the joint in a structure known as the joint capsule. That encapsulation assures reduced friction by limiting the movement of hydronium ions. Because of this, your joints don’t ordinarily squeak.

Osmosis undoubtedly has an impact on edema, the second issue under examination. The cytoplasm should provide an osmotic pull comparable to that produced by gels or diapers since the cell is filled with negatively charged proteins. It does, as physiologists are aware.

But the comparatively low water content of cells is an odd characteristic. The cell’s water-to-solids ratio is only approximately 2:1 as opposed to many conventional gels, which have a ratio of 20:1 or greater. Although there should be a high osmotic draw due to the large number of negatively charged macromolecules in the cell, the water content is unexpectedly low. The stiffness of the macromolecular network, which is typical of cellular networks made up of tubular or multi-stranded biopolymers that are strongly cross-linked to one another, maybe the cause of the restricted water content. The network’s potential osmotic expansion is limited by the resulting stiffness.

But if those cross-links were to break down, the entire force of osmotic pull would kick in; the tissue could then construct several EZ layers and hydrate greatly, leading to enormous growth (Figure 5). When bodily tissues are injured, particularly with dislocations, it is what occurs. The damage breaks down the fibrous macromolecules and cross-links, removing the restraints that prevent osmosis, and allowing EZ accumulation to proceed almost unhindered.

Because the cross-link disruption happens gradually, swelling can be rather significant. Disruption advances in a zipper-like manner because breaking one cross-link increases the tension on other cross-links. When it occurs, the osmotic rush of water into the tissue can essentially continue without control, causing the significant instantaneous swelling that is frequently observed. Only after cross-links are repaired and the matrix assumes it’s typically constricting form will the tissue return to normal.

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Water and Healing

Video Credit: UPLIFT

Grandmothers and medical professionals frequently suggest “drinking more water” when a youngster is ailing. The Iranian doctor Fereydoon Batmanghelidj attests to the soundness of this quaint counsel in his now-classic book Your Body’s Many Cries for Water: You Are Not Sick, You Are Thirsty. The author provides evidence from years of clinical experience that higher water consumption can reverse a variety of illnesses. Water intake is essential.

The experience of Batmanghelidj fits well with research showing the therapeutic benefits of holy waters like those from Lourdes and the Ganges. These fluids often originate from glacier melt or subsurface springs. The pressure exerted above spring waters causes liquid water to change into EZ water due to EZ water’s increased density.

Mountain water should have a high EZ content as well. Our research has demonstrated that ice creation needs an EZ intermediate; that is, bulk water does not instantly turn into ice; instead, it first turns into EZ. The same is true for melting: EZ is created when the ice melts and then transforms into bulk water. Plenty of EZ water may be found in fresh ice melt.

Therefore, the high EZ concentration may explain the known health advantages of spring water and fresh ice melt. Because EZ water has a stronger dipole moment than regular water, it should hydrate tissues more effectively. Imagine a bean with a positive localized charge at one end and a negative localized charge at the other to understand this argument.

That dipole is powerfully drawn in by the negatively charged cell because its positive end is oriented in its direction. The draw will be stronger the bigger the dipole is. Since EZs have enormous dipoles or masses of separated charges, EZ water ought to hydrate cells more effectively than regular water. Because of this, EZ water may help to enhance health in particular.

Anti-Oxidants and Negative Charge

Humans are regarded as neutral beings, but I contend that humans have a net negative charge.

Because positive charge attracts negative charge, physical chemists logically assume that all systems move toward neutrality. We presume that because the human body is one of those “systems,” it must be impartial.

But not all systems are impartial. The net charge on the planet is negative, but the net charge on the atmosphere is positive. Water may carry a charge by itself: Anyone seeing MIT professor Walter Lewin’s breathtaking Kelvin water dropper demonstration will realize right away that bodies of water may carry net charge since isolated bodies of water ultimately discharge into one another. If any question still exists, it should be dispelled by the fact that my coworkers and I personally received an electric shock after touching a certain type of drinking water.

When input energy maintains charges apart, such as when you recharge your mobile phone battery and create distinct negative and positive terminals, charges can continue to be kept apart. Since we are continually absorbing energy from our surroundings, it is theoretically possible that we may be negatively charged.

Think about mathematics. About 60% of your body’s mass is made up of negatively charged cells. Next in line are extracellular tissues like collagen and elastin, which have a negative charge and absorb negatively charged EZ water. Only a few of the smaller compartments produce urine, sweat, and expired air, which contains hydrated CO2 or carbonic acid and is positively charged with protons (low pH). They aid in neutralizing the body’s positive charge.

The math, therefore, demonstrates that the human body has a net negative charge and that this charge is maintained by the body’s constant removal of protons. It seems as though the “goal” of life is to sustain negativity. Animals must work a little more to keep their bodies charge to be as mobile as plants, which attach easily to the negatively charged ground.

How do the advantages of antioxidants connect to the negative charge in our bodies?

The solution to this query takes us back to fundamental chemistry. Recall that “oxidation” refers to the loss of electrons while “reduction” refers to the gain of electrons. The body’s attempt to maintain a high level of negativity is thwarted by oxidation, which depletes molecules of their negative charge. We use antioxidants to prevent that loss. Antioxidants could keep us healthy by ensuring that our negativity is under check.

The upcoming

Water’s importance for health is nothing new, yet it has slowly fallen from memory. We have forgotten what happens when the parts join together to make a bigger organism since many disciplines place emphasis [on] molecular, atomic, and even sub-atomic methods. Indeed, the whole could be greater than the sum of its parts. Water molecules make up 99% of those components. Ignoring millennia of evidence to the contrary, one would believe that 99% of our molecules serve only to wash the “more important” components of life. All aspects of existence revolve around water.

Up until recently, the widespread notion that water had three phases limited our knowledge of the characteristics of water. Now we are aware of its four.

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Water, which is sometimes taken for granted, has amazing qualities that go well beyond its liquid condition. Water continues to astound and enthrall scientists, from its contributions to meteorological research to its function in biological movement. We may open up a world of opportunities by comprehending and utilizing these qualities, from improvements in weather prediction to ground-breaking medical procedures. Let us continue to examine the many ways that water may make our lives better as we continue to learn more about its secrets.


Can a fourth phase of water exist?

Yes, there is a fourth phase termed the “Exclusion Zone” where water may dwell close to hydrophilic surfaces. This stage displays distinct characteristics and is essential to many biological processes.

How is the negative charge of water affecting our health?

Higher amounts of antioxidants, which aid in scavenging damaging free radicals and lowering oxidative stress, are linked to the negative charge of water. Our body’ ability to maintain a negative charge promotes healthy cells and general well-being.

Do the qualities of water have any real-world applications?

Absolutely! In areas like atmospheric science, weather prediction, climate modeling, and healthcare, an understanding of water’s characteristics is useful. It could result in improvements to these fields and our standard of living.

How can water aid in the healing process?

Water promotes quicker and more efficient wound healing by facilitating the movement of vital nutrients and accelerating cellular activity. Water promotes tissue regeneration and assists the healing process by maintaining a wet environment.

Are there any new advances or current studies on the subject of water studies?

Yes, water research is always changing. More investigation is being done by scientists into the characteristics of water, such as its exclusion zone and its effects on biological systems.

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